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Bibliography Or Reference List First 5


DOI = digital object identifier

  • A DOI commonly identifies a journal articlebut it can also be found on other publication types including books.
  • All DOIs start with 10. and includes numbers and letters. Example: doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.08.001
  • The DOI provides a permanent internet address for the item making it easy to locate.
  • You may search by DOI numbers in Library Search or http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.aut.ac.nz to locate articles.

Doi in your reference list entry:

  • Always use the DOI if available (for print or online articles and books). 
  • No full stop at the end of a DOI. 


A new citing format for DOI was introduced by APA in March 2017. The new format includes https and the prefix doi.org: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.11.001


Oppenheimer, D., Zaromb, F., Pomerantz, J. R., Williams, J. C., & Park, Y. S. (2017). Improvement of writing skills during college: A multi-year cross-sectional and longitudinal study of undergraduate writing performance. Assessing Writing, 32, 12–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.11.001

Notes: the following old DOI styles are still acceptable:



If there is no DOI for a online journal article or an e-book, include a URL in your reference.

Use the URL of a journal home page for journal articles without DOI

  • Use the URL of the journal homepage, NOT the full URL of the article, in your reference.

Finding a journal homepage URL:

  • You could do a Google search for the journal title (within double quotation marks), e.g. "new zealand management magazine" to find the journal's homepage

  • Or, go to the Library database Ulrichsweb, search by the journal title or the journal's ISSN to find the journal record. On the journal record page, find the journal URL for your reference.

Journals without a home page and no DOI:

This can happen to some discontinued journals, or journals archived in an archival database only. 

  • Use the database home page URL in your reference. See the example in the following section.  


Use a URL of a library database:

Resources retrieved from a library database, without a DOI:

If you use electronic resources without DOI, such as an ebook or a data set or a journal without a website, from a library database, You are required to include the URL of the database homepage in your reference.

  • Do not use the full URL of the source that you retrieved from a database.



An ebook "Small town sustainability: economic, social,and environmental innovation".

The URL on the ebook page is:


The reference list at the end of the essay or dissertation is where the full bibliographic information for a source is presented. Each source that is cited in the body of your work, whether to elaborate on a point you have made, or reinforce an argument, must also have an entry in the end reference list, unless it is an irretrievable source like a personal communication.

A reference list is not to be confused with a bibliography, which tutors may alternately ask you to produce to accompany a piece of written work. The distinction between the two is that the reference list is sources that you have actually used in your essay or dissertation, through direct quotation and paraphrasing, whereas a bibliography features all the sources that you have read as part of your research for an essay or dissertation, a kind of reading list. If you are in any doubt as to what is required for a bibliography, you should speak to your tutor for clarification as there are differences compared with a reference list.

In a full reference list, individual sources are listed in alphabetical order according to the author or contributor’s surname. You do not need to group references by the type of format in a full reference list. The top of the page can either be headed ‘Reference List’, or simply ‘References’.

If you are referencing a number of sources by the same author, list them chronologically by the year of publication with the earliest work first. When an author has written more than one work published in the same year, as seen in section 1.11, then list each individual reference in order of the lower case letter after the year of publication e.g. (2007a), (2007b).

Check with your departmental guidelines whether you are meant to write a reference list or bibliography, and for the latter, if you need to give references only (making it more of a reference list), or a full list of the sources that you have consulted.

For longer references that exceed one line of text, some departments may indent the text on the lines underneath the first line of text (the indentation is usually fixed at 5 spaces in from the first line of text). Look at longer reference examples in your departmental handbook, to see whether you need to indent text within the reference list.

The second section of this manual will show you how to construct a reference as part of the full reference list for the types of source materials covered in section one. The individual units which make up a reference are given, followed by an example to illustrate how this would look with all of the information pieced together.

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